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Linux Commands Tutorial

Linux Commands

This page links to some basic Linux Commands. In this tutorial, we will look at some basic Linux commands that will help you become familiar with the Linux operating system and work with the command shell in Linux. There are many Linux distributions out there, but most of the tutorials use the Ubuntu desktop Linux distribution.

To know some popular Linux distributions:

Popular Linux Distributions

Linux Commands

Many operating systems use commands. For example, UNIX, Windows MS-DOS, etc.

A Linux command is the user’s request or interaction with the shell. The shell executes the command. A command is entered at the shell prompt. Many distributions have the GUI application. For example, the Ubuntu distribution provides the Terminal application.


The basic Linux command syntax is as follows:

$ command [flags] [arguments] 



command: command specified the action to be performed. Note that, unlike the Windows operating system, Linux is case-sensitive. So, in Linux hello is not the same as HELLO

flags: flags alter the execution behavior of the command.

arguments: provide data or additional information to the command. The square brackets indicate that the flags and arguments are optional. However, some commands may require mandatory arguments.

In most cases, the standard input for the commands is the keyboard and the standard output for the commands is the monitor.

Root File System

Linux Root Filesystem


pwd stands for the present working directory. This command returns the present working location in the directory structure.

If we issue PWD instead of pwd in the command shell, we would get an error

PWD command not found.

cd( change directory)

The cd command is used to change the working directory:

Change Directory Command


man Linux Command


mkdir Command


who Command


echo Command


ls is used to list the contents of the directory. This command is something similar to the dir command on Windows. The output of the command includes the files and sub-directories.


sudo Command


su Command


nohup Command


rmdir command


rm linux command

More information on Ubuntu Linux:

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