# Python Set Operations

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## Python Set Operations

Let’s learn about different Python set operations in this tutorial. A set in Python is an unordered collection of mutable, unique elements used for performing mathematical set operations.

## Python Set Operations

The basic Python set operations are as follows:

 Python Set Operation Description Union The union of elements of x and y is the set of all elements of both sets. The duplicate elements are discarded in the union set operation. The union operation can be performed using the operator(|) or the union() method. Intersection The intersection of sets x and y refers to the common elements of both sets. The intersection of two sets can be performed either by using the (&) operator or the intersection() method. Difference The difference between sets x and y, i.e. (x-y) results in elements of x but not in y. The difference operation can be performed with the (–) operator or the difference() method. Symmetric Difference The symmetric difference of sets x and y refers to the elements contained in both x and y, except those common among them. The symmetric difference is performed using the (^) operator or by using the symmetric_difference() method.

## Union

Let’s demonstrate the union set operation with Python code. The code creates two example sets and shows how to perform union set operations using the operator and union() method.

```# Set Union Operation Demo
# Python Tutorials - www.TestingDocs.com
x = {1, 2, 3, 4, 5}
y = {3, 4, 6, 9}
print('Set union using | operator     =', x | y)
print('Set union using union() method =', x.union(y))
print('x union y = y union x          =', y.union(x))```

Output

Set union using | operator            = {1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 9}
Set union using union() method = {1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 9}
x union y = y union x                     = {1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 9}

We can see that the output of using the operator(|) or union() method is the same.

## Intersection

Now, let’s demonstrate the intersection set operation. The Python code creates two example sets and shows how to perform the intersection set operations using the operator(&) and the intersection() method.

```# Set Intersection Operation Demo
# Python Tutorials - www.TestingDocs.com
x = {1, 2, 3, 4, 5}
y = {3, 4, 6, 9}
print('Set intersection using | operator=', x & y)
print('Set intersection using method   =', x.intersection(y))
print('x & y = y & x                   =', y.intersection(x))

```

Output

Set intersection using | operator        = {3, 4}
Set intersection using method            = {3, 4}
x & y = y & x                                            = {3, 4}

The output is the common elements present in both the sets x and y.

## Difference

The Python program uses the – operator and the difference() method to demonstrate the set difference operation.

```# Set Difference Operation Demo
# Python Tutorials - www.TestingDocs.com
x = {1, 2, 3, 4, 5}
y = {3, 4, 6, 9}
print('Set difference using - operator       =', x - y)
print('Set difference using method   =', x.difference(y))
print('(x - y) is NOT equal to (y - x)   =', y.difference(x))

```

Output

Set difference using – operator = {1, 2, 5}
Set difference using method     = {1, 2, 5}
(x – y) is NOT equal to (y – x)    = {9, 6}

## Symmetric Difference

The program below uses the ^ operator and the symmetric_difference() method to demonstrate the symmetric difference operation.

```# Symmetric Difference Operation Demo
# Python Tutorials - www.TestingDocs.com
x = {1, 2, 3, 4, 5}
y = {3, 4, 6, 9}
print('The symmetric difference using ^ operator  =', x ^ y)
print('The symmetric difference using method =', x.symmetric_difference(y))
print('(x ^ y) is equal to (y ^ x)   =', y.symmetric_difference(x))```

Output

The symmetric difference using ^ operator = {1, 2, 5, 6, 9}
The symmetric difference using method = {1, 2, 5, 6, 9}
(x ^ y) is equal to (y ^ x) = {1, 2, 5, 6, 9}

These operations and methods demonstrate how we can perform various mathematical set operations using Python Sets.

## Python Tutorials

Python Tutorial on this website can be found at:

https://www.testingdocs.com/python-tutorials/