GQM Technique stands for Goal-Question-Metric Technique. It is a structured approach used to define, measure, and manage the goals of a software development project or any other process. It was originally introduced by Victor R. Basili and David M. Weiss in the context of software engineering, but its principles can be applied to various domains.
The GQM technique is designed to establish a clear relationship between the goals of a project, the specific questions that need to be answered to assess progress toward those goals, and the metrics that will be used to quantify and evaluate the progress. This structured approach helps to ensure that goals are well-defined, measurable, and aligned with the overall objectives of the project.
This technique consists of three stages:
- Set of Questions
- Set of corresponding Metrics
It’s a hierarchical structure that specifies the purpose of the measure, the object that has to be measured, the issues that need to be measured, and the viewpoint from which the measures are taken.
Define the high-level goals you want to achieve. These goals should be specific, measurable, achievable, relevant, and time-bound (SMART). Goals provide the context and purpose for the entire measurement process.
For each goal, formulate one or more questions that need to be answered in order to assess progress towards the goal. These questions should be specific and directly related to the goal. They act as intermediate objectives that contribute to achieving the overall goal.
Define the metrics or measurements that will provide quantifiable data to answer the questions. Metrics can be quantitative (e.g., lines of code written per day) or qualitative (e.g., user satisfaction ratings). They should be chosen carefully to provide meaningful information about the project’s progress.
The GQM technique helps in the following ways:
Clarity: By breaking down goals into specific questions and metrics, the overall project objectives become clearer and more achievable.
Alignment: GQM ensures that measurements and metrics are directly tied to the goals, promoting alignment between activities and the project’s purpose.
Evaluation: The metrics provide objective data for evaluating the progress and success of the project, allowing for informed decision-making.
Feedback: The structured approach facilitates regular feedback on progress and helps identify potential issues early.
Adaptation: If goals change or evolve over time, GQM can be used to update the questions and metrics accordingly.
The GQM technique is a valuable tool for managing projects, monitoring progress, and making informed decisions based on data-driven insights. It fosters a systematic and well-organized approach to defining, tracking, and achieving project goals.