The waterfall model is a linear model and it is widely used for projects with frozen requirements. It is the basic SDLC model. All the phases are broken down into linear phases. In this model, a phase will start only after the exit or closure of the earlier phase.
Phases in Waterfall Model
A typical waterfall model consists of following phases:
- Requirements Analysis
The waterfall model begins with the Requirements analysis phase. Requirements gathering and interaction with the end customer takes place in this phase. Detailed functionality, limitations of the software product to be developed are understood by the team. A detailed document called the Software Requirements Specifications (SRS) document would be prepared.
This phase starts after the requirements phase is completed. In this phase, the system design is carried out. System design implies hardware design and software design. The functionality of hardware and software is separated out and the design of the software modules is carried out. Documents like high-level system design and low-level design documents are prepared.
The coding phase starts after the design phase is complete. In this phase, the design is converted into a workable code by the development team. Developers may perform unit testing in this phase.
Once the coding phase is completed QA team combines all the components and a testable product is deployed on the QA environment. The product is tested for its functionality and performance requirements. A test report containing the test results is prepared.QA team ensures that it product works without any defects.
On successful completion of testing, the product will be rolled out to the client and if any enhancements are required, they are worked upon as feature requests.
A regular operation and system maintenance would be carried out for the healthy operation of the product in the production environment.
Software artifacts and Software roles mapping to each phase: