# Python Set Operations

## Overview

Let’s learn about different Python set operations in this tutorial. A set in Python is an unordered collection of mutable, unique elements used for performing mathematical set operations.

## Python Set Operations

The basic Python set operations are as follows:

Python Set Operation |
Description |

Union |
The union of elements of x and y is the set of all elements of both sets. The duplicate elements are discarded in the union set operation. The union operation can be performed using the operator(|) or the union() method. |

Intersection |
The intersection of sets x and y refers to the common elements of both sets. The intersection of two sets can be performed either by using the (&) operator or the intersection() method. |

Difference |
The difference between sets x and y, i.e. (x-y) results in elements of x but not in y. The difference operation can be performed with the (–) operator or the difference() method. |

Symmetric Difference |
The symmetric difference of sets x and y refers to the elements contained in both x and y, except those common among them. The symmetric difference is performed using the (^) operator or by using the symmetric_difference() method. |

## Union

Let’s demonstrate the union set operation with Python code. The code creates two example sets and shows how to perform union set operations using the operator and **union()** method.

# Set Union Operation Demo # Python Tutorials - www.TestingDocs.com x = {1, 2, 3, 4, 5} y = {3, 4, 6, 9} print('Set union using | operator =', x | y) print('Set union using union() method =', x.union(y)) print('x union y = y union x =', y.union(x))

**Output**

Set union using | operator = {1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 9}

Set union using union() method = {1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 9}

x union y = y union x = {1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 9}

We can see that the output of using the operator(|) or union() method is the same.

**Intersection**

Now, let’s demonstrate the intersection set operation. The Python code creates two example sets and shows how to perform the intersection set operations using the operator(**&**) and the **intersection()** method.

# Set Intersection Operation Demo # Python Tutorials - www.TestingDocs.com x = {1, 2, 3, 4, 5} y = {3, 4, 6, 9} print('Set intersection using | operator=', x & y) print('Set intersection using method =', x.intersection(y)) print('x & y = y & x =', y.intersection(x))

**Output**

Set intersection using | operator = {3, 4}

Set intersection using method = {3, 4}

x & y = y & x = {3, 4}

The output is the common elements present in both the sets x and y.

**Difference**

The Python program uses the – operator and the **difference()** method to demonstrate the set difference operation.

# Set Difference Operation Demo # Python Tutorials - www.TestingDocs.com x = {1, 2, 3, 4, 5} y = {3, 4, 6, 9} print('Set difference using - operator =', x - y) print('Set difference using method =', x.difference(y)) print('(x - y) is NOT equal to (y - x) =', y.difference(x))

**Output**

Set difference using – operator = {1, 2, 5}

Set difference using method = {1, 2, 5}

(x – y) is NOT equal to (y – x) = {9, 6}

**Symmetric Difference**

The program below uses the ^ operator and the **symmetric_difference()** method to demonstrate the symmetric difference operation.

# Symmetric Difference Operation Demo # Python Tutorials - www.TestingDocs.com x = {1, 2, 3, 4, 5} y = {3, 4, 6, 9} print('The symmetric difference using ^ operator =', x ^ y) print('The symmetric difference using method =', x.symmetric_difference(y)) print('(x ^ y) is equal to (y ^ x) =', y.symmetric_difference(x))

**Output**

The symmetric difference using ^ operator = {1, 2, 5, 6, 9}

The symmetric difference using method = {1, 2, 5, 6, 9}

(x ^ y) is equal to (y ^ x) = {1, 2, 5, 6, 9}

These operations and methods demonstrate how we can perform various mathematical set operations using Python Sets.

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## Python Tutorials

Python Tutorial on this website can be found at:

https://www.testingdocs.com/python-tutorials/

More information on Python is available at the official website: